时政·财经·军事 | 生活·家庭·娱乐 | 体坛·历史·科技 | 摄影·旅游·文化 | 移民·教育·就业 | 数码·健康·奇闻 | 评论·图片·视频
留园新闻速递· 【繁體閱讀】 【网友评论:0条】 【英国本地新闻信息】 

狂饮能量饮料 英国小孩身体还行不行?

新闻来源: 微观英国 于 2018-07-11 12:55:12  


狂饮能量饮料 英国小孩身体还行不行?

能量饮料饮料风靡全球,尤其是在世界杯期间,球迷们纷纷在看球的时候开怀畅饮。然而,最新数据表明,在英国饮用能量饮料的儿童的比例比欧洲其他任何国家都要高。有五分之一的10岁儿童经常饮用能量饮料。这到底是是健康风险,还是说喝能量饮料和喝咖啡差不多?


能量饮料种类众多

当红牛在1994年在英国推出时,它古怪、润喉止咳糖浆味道和“能量饮料”的新奇牌子让学生们和俱乐部成员都为这些东西疯狂。很快,这个品牌就成为了一种廉价而合法的主食,因为它能支撑人们熬通宵。


25年过去了,能量饮料市场仍在增长,,现在能量饮料不再只是年轻的成年人在狂欢了,这些牌子对孩子们很有吸引力。


官方数据显示,英国最大的能量饮料市场是16-24岁的男孩,63%的人(相对于女孩的58%的比例)沉迷于此。根据欧洲食品安全管理局(EFSA)的研究,三分之二的10-16岁的孩子经常喝能量饮料,而在3 - 10岁的孩子中,这一比例为18%。2017年,公共卫生转化研究中心的公共卫生研究人员调查了了英格兰东北部中学的孩子们对能量饮料的消费情况。10岁至11岁年龄组的一名男孩说:“有时候,这是一个通宵达旦的日子。”“所以你去商店买能量饮料,然后回家,通宵玩你的Xbox游戏机。”


能量饮料被归类为每升含有超过150毫克咖啡因的软饮料。然而,包括Monster、Rockstar和Red Bull(至今仍是全球最畅销的能量饮料)在内的许多品牌都含有超过这一数字的两倍。虽然每升约300毫克,比过滤咖啡(每升约400毫克)要少,但这些饮料对儿童来说更容易引起更大反应。ESFA说,一些品牌中只一罐饮料内含有的咖啡因含量可以超过儿童的每日咖啡因摄入量。

咖啡和能量饮料哪个更健康呢?阿米莉亚·莱克是泰赛德大学公共健康营养学的一名读者,也是《2017年学校儿童访谈研究》的作者之一。“咖啡是非常不同的,”她说。“咖啡很热,也不一定全是糖,最重要的是你不能把咖啡一饮而尽。你不能像喝这些饮料一样,一个接一个地喝。”

2016年,莱克和他的同事回顾了欧美关于能量饮料的学术文献。他们发现,饮用这些饮料会导致头痛、胃痛、多动症、失眠、疲劳和过敏等症状。在饮用能量饮料的人当中,受伤、违章驾驶和交通事故的发生率也较高。在2010年至2011年的美国,国家毒物数据系统(National Poison Data System)接到了4854个关于能量饮料案件的电话。几乎一半的患者是6岁以下的儿童,但在年龄较大的儿童中,出现了诸如心律紊乱和高血压等更严重的影响。

喝多了真的会头痛哦!

根据欧盟标签指南,每升含有超过150毫克咖啡因的软饮料必须警告咖啡因含量过高,并声明不建议儿童饮用。但这难道不会让孩子们更无法抗拒饮料吗?“我不认为这是一颗银弹,”莱克说,“但这是很好的第一步。她的一些研究是由忧心忡忡的家长团体推动的。莱克说:“人们对这些饮料的用途和用途感到困惑,孩子们经常用它们做早餐。”他哀叹道,尽管“罐头上说它们不是给孩子喝的,但我们还是把它们卖给了孩子。”英国儿童的能量饮料消费量是欧洲最高的。

今年早些时候,英国主要的超市承诺不向16岁以下的孩子出售这些饮料,但便利店和自动售货机随处可见。政府现在提议禁止向16岁以下的儿童出售这些饮料,以防止儿童肥胖。“如果你看得更广一些,”莱克说,“其他国家已经走在路上有一段时间了。”一些国家完全禁止向18岁以下的人销售能量饮料。

一名10岁至11岁的男孩告诉莱克和她的同事说,男孩们认为,当他们在女孩面前喝饮料时,他们看起来“像岩石一样强壮”。一位同龄女孩承认,如果朋友有一瓶能量饮料但你只有一瓶水的话,“你就会被怂恿着想买那玩意儿和,因为它看起来更酷。”
毕竟是孩子,还是吃点健康的才好。

那么孩子们如何建议我们做什么把他们从能量饮料的诱惑中救出来?另一位10-11岁的女孩说:“我认为(能量饮料)应该放在他们自己的专属购买通道,那种不允许孩子购买的商品通道,就像香烟的通道一样。”“香烟和能量饮料应该放在一起,我们不应该被允许走这条通道。”

卫报原文:

Flying high:
kids in the UK are wild about energy drinks - but how harmful are they?

UK children consume energy drinks at a higher rate than kids in any other country in Europe - with a fifth of three-10-year-olds having them regularly. Is this a health risk, or no worse than coffee?

When Red Bull launched in the UK in 1994, with its odd, cough-linctus flavour and novel billing as an “energy drink”, students and clubbers went mad for the stuff. The brand quickly became a cheap and legal staple for staying up all night. A quarter of a century later, the energy drinks market is still growing and flooded with Red Bull competitors such as Relentless, Monster Energy and Emerge. And it is no longer just young adults guzzling them to study or rave into the small hours; these brands are catnip to children.

Mintel consumer usage data starts at the age of 16, so, officially, the biggest UK market for energy drinks is boys aged 16-24, with 63% indulging (as opposed to 58% of girls). But, according to European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) research, two-thirds of 10-16-year-olds regularly consume energy drinks, along with 18% of three-to 10-years-olds. In 2017, public health researchers from the Centre for Translational Research in Public Health asked secondary-school children in north-east England about their consumption of energy drinks. “Sometimes, it’s sleepover day,” said a boy in the 10-11-year-old age group. “So you go to the shop, get energy drinks and you go in your house and you just play on your Xbox.”

Energy drinks are classified as soft drinks containing more than 150mg of caffeine per litre. Many brands, however, including Monster, Rockstar and Red Bull (still the world’s bestselling energy drink) contain more than twice that amount. While, at about 300mg per litre, this is less than filter coffee (about 400mg per litre), the drinks are way more quaffable to children. The ESFA say just one can of some brands could exceed their recommended daily caffeine limit for children.

Amelia Lake is a reader in public health nutrition at Teeside University and co-author of the 2017 study for which school children were interviewed. “Coffee is very different,” she says. “It’s hot, not necessarily full of sugar and you can’t gulp it down. You can’t have three or four one after another, like you can with these drinks.” With highly palatable flavours such as tropical fruits and blueberry, they are to coffee what alcopops are to vodka.

The “full-fat” versions usually contain a little more sugar than regular soft drinks, but the calories in energy drinks are often viewed as more acceptable – an active ingredient. So at a time when traditional sugary soft drink sales have slowed, thanks to obesity campaigns, the UK energy drink market grew 19% between 2012 and 2017, to 669m litres, and is valued at ?1.65bn. Sales in high-sugar varieties are currently on a par with lighter versions, although, according to Alex Beckett, associate director at Mintel food and drink, “the big brands have invested in zero-sugar recipes and that’s what’s really driving the market”.

Lake says that the health concerns don’t stop at sugar and caffeine. “There’s the cocktail of the other things in these drinks – the guanine, taurine, various other what are called healthy ingredients. We don’t have a lot of evidence about what the combination does to adults or children.” Taurine is an amino acid found in meat and fish that is claimed to enhance concentration (among its many other biological functions), especially when combined with caffeine and guanine – a stimulant derived from the South American guarana plant.

In 2016, Lake and colleagues reviewed the academic literature on energy drinks from Europe and the US. They found associations between consuming the drinks with symptoms including headaches, stomach aches, hyperactivity, insomnia, fatigue and irritation. There were also higher incidences among energy drink fans of injuries, driving violations and road accidents. In the US in 2010-11, the National Poison Data System received 4,854 calls about energy drink cases. Almost half involved children under six years old, but it was among older children that more grave effects such as cardiac rhythm disturbances and hypertension were reported.

According to EU labelling guidelines, soft drinks with more than 150mg of caffeine per litre must carry a warning about the high caffeine content and state that they are not recommended for children. But wouldn’t this make the drinks even more irresistible to children? “I don’t think it’s a silver bullet,” says Lake, “but it’s a good first step.” Some of her research was prompted by concerned parent groups. “There was confusion around who and what these drinks are for, with incidences of children having them for breakfast,” says Lake, lamenting that even though “the cans say they’re not for children, we sell them to children anyway”. Energy drink consumption by children in the UK is the highest in Europe.

Research into energy drinks and children is in its infancy, but, says Lake, “when you speak to the NASUWT [the teachers’ union], you realise that it has been an ongoing issue with children and teachers and schools”. A key problem is “the drinks are readily available, acceptable and, while the children were quite aware that the drinks might not be great for you, they weren’t quite sure why”, says Lake. As some of the children pointed out, they could get small cans for less than half the price of a can of Coke, or could club together to make the most of four-for-a-pound deals.

Earlier this year, the major UK supermarkets committed to not selling the drinks to under-16s, but convenience stores and vending machines are ubiquitous. The government has now proposed a ban on selling the drinks to under-16s, to combat childhood obesity. “If you look wider,” says Lake, “other countries have been ahead of this curve for a while now. Some countries have outright bans; some have banned sales to under-18s.”

The health secretary has also proposed a 9pm watershed for junk-food advertising, but the way that energy drinks are promoted is many-tentacled. The brands have forged strong associations with gaming, extreme sports, Formula One racing, clubbing and music, using social media, event sponsorship and web content. As Beckett says, the marketing is “very attractive to young people, with a lot of social media, YouTube channels ... Monster has been very savvy advertising through the gaming world. These are whole other areas of a marketing universe that’s on the radar of young people, but not their parents.”

One boy of 10-11 told Lake and her colleagues that boys think they look “proper rock hard when they have [the drinks] in front of girls”. And a girl of the same age admitted that if a friend has something “really, really nice – an energy drink, like a Monster – but you only have a bottle of water, you’re tempted to get [the energy drink], because it looks cooler”.

What do the children propose we do to save them from themselves? “I think [the drinks] should go in their own aisle, where children are not allowed, like cigarettes,” said another 10-11-year-old girl. “They should all be together and we shouldn’t go in that aisle.”


文章图片来源:卫报
免责声明:文章谨代表作者个人观点,不代表“微观英国”微信公众号立场。
翻译版权归本公众号所有。
编译:Snow
网编:网事随风

鲜花(0)

鸡蛋()
0 条
热门评论更多...
新闻速递首页】 【英国本地新闻信息】 【地区新闻信息汇总】 【即刻热度新闻

内容来自网络,不代表本网立场,如果有内容违规或侵犯了您的权益,请联系我们,我们核实后会第一时间删除!
前期相关精彩新闻
新闻速递首页·新闻网友报料区·返回前页